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Глава 10. Вашингтонская дилемма

1 Bush, George, and Brent Scowcroft A World Transformed. New York, 1998. P 539.

2 Ibid.; Hyams, Joe Flight of the Avenger: George Bush at War. New York, 1991; Tarpley, W G., and A. Chaitkin

George Bush: An Unauthorized Biography. Joshua Tree, CA, 2004. P. 101–114.

3 Lieven, Anatol The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence. New Haven, CT, 1994. P 82–85, 204–254, 374–384.

4 Интервью автора с Николасом Бернсом. Гарвардский университет, 15 июня 2012 г.

5 Secstate то Amembassy Bucharest. March 22, 1991. Subject: CSCE. Handling Moldova in CSCE. Bush Presidential Library, Presidential Records, National Security Council, Nicholas R. Burns and Ed A. Hewett Series, Russia Subject Files: 4.3.0 – US Relations with Russia, Policy on the Debate over the Union; Nicholas Burns to Ed Hewett Response to the Soviet Embassy on the USSR Borders. April 1, 1991. Ibid.; George Bush to Mikhail Gorbachev Draft of August 27,1991. Bush Presidential Library, Presidential Records, National Security Council, Nicholas R. Burns and Ed A. Hewett Series, USSR Chronological Files: August 1991, no. 1.

6 Baker, James A., with Thomas M. DeFrank The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War and Peace, 1989–1992. New York, 1995. P 238; из доклада Джека Мэтлока в Центре российских и евразийских исследований им. Дэвиса (Гарвардский университет), 25 октября 2011 г.

7 George H. W Bush to Mikhail Gorbachev. January 23, 1991. James A. Baker Papers, box 109, folder 9; Matlock, Jack Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador’s Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union. New York, 1994. Pp. 469–473.

8 Walker, Edward W Dissolution: Sovereignty and the Breakup of the Soviet Union. Lanham, MD, 2003. Pp. 55-178; Распад СССР: Документы и факты (1986–1992 гг.). Кн. 1, Нормативные акты. Официальные сообщения. Под РЕД. С. М. Шахрая. Москва, 2009. С. 265–635.

9 Интервью автора с Томасом Саймонсом. 13 мая 2013 г.; George H. W Bush to Mikhail Gorbachev. January 23, 1991; Gates, Robert M. From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insiders Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. New York, 1996. P. 528–529.

10 Bush and Scowcroft A World Transformed, pp. 207, 223; Olgerts Pavlovskis, Chairman of Joint Baltic American National Committee to President Bush. June 13, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Presidential Records, White House Office of Records Management, Subject Files, General: Economic Summit, London, England, 7/15-17/91; Benjamin L. Cardin and 44 other members of the US Congress to President Bush. July 26, 1991. Ibid.; Letter from the leadership of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, signed by Senator Alfonse DAmato and others, to President Bush. July 26, 1991. Ibid.; Points to Be Made for Meeting with President Boris Yeltsin. [July 1991.] Bush Presidential Library, Presidential Records, National Security Council, Nicholas R. Burns Series, Subject Files: POTUS Trip to Moscow and Kiev, July 27 – August 1, 1991, no. 1; Points to Be Made for Meeting with Chairman Leonid Kravchuk. [July 1991.] Ibid., no. 3.

11 Bush and Scowcroft A World Transformed, pp. 533–534; Amembasy Moscow, to Secstate, Washington August 25, 1991. Subject: Baltic Independence Initiative: Letter from Lithuanian President Landsbergis to the President. P 1–2. Bush Presidential Library, Presidential Records, National Security Council, White House Situation Room Files: USSR Part 4 of 4 Moscow Coup Attempt (1991), no. 7; Amembasy Moscow, to Secstate, Washington August 26, 1991. Subject: USSR Supreme Soviet Special Session Begins with Endless Procedural Wrangling. Ibid. Situation Room Files: USSR Part 4 of 4 Moscow Coup Attempt (1991), no. 9.

12 Slade Gorton to George H. W Bush. August 23, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Presidential Records, White House Office of Records Management, Subject Files, General: Russia; Bush AND SCOWCROFT A World Transformed, pp. 538–539.

13 Memorandum of telephone conversation, Bush and Vytau-tas Landsbergis, August 31, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Memcons and Telcons. http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/ pdfs/memcons_telcons/1991-o8-}i-Landsbergis.pdf; Bush and ArnoldRuutel. September 2, 1991. Ibid. http://bushlibrary.tamu. edu/research/pdfs/memcons_telcons/\99\-09-02-Ruutel.pdf; Bush and Anatolii Gorbunovs. September 2, 1991. Ibid. http:// bushlibrary. tamu.edu/research/pdfs/memcons_telcons/1991-09-02-Gorbunovs.pdf; George Bush to Vytautas Landsbergis. August 31, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Presidential Records, National Security Council, Jane Hall Series, Soviet Union, 1991; Bush AND SCOWCROFT A World Transformed, p. 539.

14 Bush and Scowcroft A World Transformed, p. 540; Baker The Politics of Diplomacy, p. 526.

15 Bush and Scowcroft A World Transformed, pp. 540–541; Beschloss, Michael R., and Strobe Talbott At the Highest Levels: The Inside Story of the End of the Cold War. Boston, 1993. P 441, 444–445.

16 Bush and Scowcroft A World Transformed, pp. 541–542.

17 Baker The Politics of Diplomacy, pp. 624–636; Bush and Scowcroft A World Transformed, pp. 541–542; Cheney, Dick, with Liz Cheney In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir. New York, 2011. Pp. 231–232.

18 Bush and Scowcroft A World Transformed, pp. 541–542.

19 Baker The Politics of Diplomacy, pp. 526–527; Gates From the Shadows, p. 85–96; Gorbachev, Mikhail Memoirs. New York, 1995. Pp. 661–662; Zubok, Vladislav M. A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev. Chapel Hill, NC, 2007. Pp. 254–264; Adamishin, Anatoly, and Richard Schifter Human Rights, Perestroika and the End of the Cold War. Washington, D. C., 2009.

20 Baker The Politics of Diplomacy, pp. 526–529; Pankin, Boris The Last Hundred Days of the Soviet Union. London, 1996. Pp. 115–122; JAB exchange of notes w/Strauss re: meetings w/Gorbachev/Yeltsin in Moscow 9/11/91. James A. Baker Papers, box 110, folder 7.

21 Панкин, Б. Сто оборванных дней. М., 1993. С. 40, 82-103; Pankin The Last Hundred Days, p. 71.

22 Панкин Сто оборванных дней, с. 92–93; Pankin The Last Hundred Days, pp. 104–105.

23 Baker The Politics of Diplomacy, pp. 526–539.

24 Baker The Politics of Diplomacy, pp. 532–533; Черняев, Анатолий Совместный исход. Дневник двух эпох, 1972–1991 годы. Москва, 2008. С. 928.

25 Lew, Khristina Ukrainians Demonstrate Across United States. 5000 rally Across from White House // Ukrainian Weekly, September 29, 1991. P 1; Kolomayets, Marta Delegation Representing Free Ukraine Arrives in US. Kravchuk Meets with Bush, Addresses UN Assembly // Ukrainian Weekly, October 6, 1991. P. 1.

26 Meeting with Leonid Kravchuk, Ukrainian Supreme Soviet Chairman. September 25, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Memcons and Telcons, http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/pdfs/mem-cons_telcons/1991-09-25-Kravchuk.pdf; Meeting with Soviet Foreign Minister Boris Pankin During the UNGA. September 24, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Memcons and Telcons, http://bush.tamu.edu/research/pdfs/memcons_telcons/1991-09-24-Pankin.pdf; Bush AND Scowcroft A World Transformed, p. 543; Kolomayets, Marta Kravchuk Delegation in US Capital Emphasizes Ukraine’s Independence // Ukrainian Weekly, October 6, 1991. P 1; Интервью автора с Леонидом Кравчуком. Киев, 1 сентября 2011 г.; Зленко, А. Дипломатія і політика. Україна в процесі динамічних геополітичних змін. Харків, 2003. С. 239–240.

27 Bush and Scowcroft A World Transformed, pp. 544545; Telcon with secretary-general of NATO Manfred Woerner. September 27, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Memcons and Telcons. http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/pdfs/memcons_ telcons/1991-09-27-Woerner.pdf.

28 Address to the Nation on Reducing United States and Soviet Nuclear Weapons. September 27, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Public Papers. http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/public_ papers.php?id=}4}8&year= 199i&month = 9; Telcon with Mikhail

Gorbachev, president of the USSR. September 27, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Memcons and Telcons, http://bushlibrary. tamu.edu/research/pdfs/memcons_telcons/1991-09-27-Gorbachev.pdf.

29 Bush and Scowcroft A World Transformed, pp. 544–545, 547; Черняев Совместный исход, с. 990; Pankin The Last Hundred Days, p. 107; Telecon with Mikhail Gorbachev, President of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. October 5, 1991. Bush Presidential Library, Memcons and Telcons, http://bushlibrary. tamu.edu/research/pdfs/memcons_ telconsA991-10-05-Gorbachev.pdf.

30 Gates From the Shadows, p. 530.


Глава 9. Спасение империи | Последняя империя. Падение Советского Союза | Глава 11. Российский ковчег



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